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Drugs known as calcium channel blockers slow HR by binding to these channels and blocking or slowing the inward movement of calcium ions.
Caffeine and nicotine are both stimulants of the nervous system and of the cardiac centres causing an increased heart rate.
Caffeine works by increasing the rates of depolarization at the SA node, whereas nicotine stimulates the activity of the sympathetic neurons that deliver impulses to the heart.
Both surprise and stress induce physiological response: In the data collected, there was a noticeable trend between the location of actors onstage and offstage and their elevation in heart rate in response to stress; the actors present offstage reacted to the stressor immediately, demonstrated by their immediate elevation in heart the minute the unexpected event occurred, but the actors present onstage at the time of the stressor reacted in the following 5 minute period demonstrated by their increasingly elevated heart rate.
The heart rate can be slowed by altered sodium and potassium levels, hypoxia , acidosis , alkalosis , and hypothermia. The relationship between electrolytes and HR is complex, but maintaining electrolyte balance is critical to the normal wave of depolarization.
Of the two ions, potassium has the greater clinical significance. Initially, both hyponatremia low sodium levels and hypernatremia high sodium levels may lead to tachycardia.
Severely high hypernatremia may lead to fibrillation, which may cause CO to cease. Severe hyponatremia leads to both bradycardia and other arrhythmias.
Hypokalemia low potassium levels also leads to arrhythmias, whereas hyperkalemia high potassium levels causes the heart to become weak and flaccid, and ultimately to fail.
Heart muscle relies exclusively on aerobic metabolism for energy. Hypoxia an insufficient supply of oxygen leads to decreasing HRs, since metabolic reactions fueling heart contraction are restricted.
Normal blood pH falls in the range of 7. Enzymes, being the regulators or catalysts of virtually all biochemical reactions - are sensitive to pH and will change shape slightly with values outside their normal range.
These variations in pH and accompanying slight physical changes to the active site on the enzyme decrease the rate of formation of the enzyme-substrate complex, subsequently decreasing the rate of many enzymatic reactions, which can have complex effects on HR.
Severe changes in pH will lead to denaturation of the enzyme. The last variable is body temperature. Elevated body temperature is called hyperthermia , and suppressed body temperature is called hypothermia.
Slight hyperthermia results in increasing HR and strength of contraction. Hypothermia slows the rate and strength of heart contractions.
This distinct slowing of the heart is one component of the larger diving reflex that diverts blood to essential organs while submerged.
If sufficiently chilled, the heart will stop beating, a technique that may be employed during open heart surgery.
Excessive hyperthermia and hypothermia will both result in death, as enzymes drive the body systems to cease normal function, beginning with the central nervous system.
The normal SA node firing rate is affected by autonomic nervous system activity: Normal pulse rates at rest, in beats per minute BPM: The basal or resting heart rate HR rest is defined as the heart rate when a person is awake, in a neutrally temperate environment, and has not been subject to any recent exertion or stimulation, such as stress or surprise.
A large body of evidence indicates that the normal range is beats per minute. For example, all-cause mortality is increased by 1.
The maximum heart rate HR max is the highest heart rate an individual can achieve without severe problems through exercise stress,  [ unreliable medical source?
In this test, a person is subjected to controlled physiologic stress generally by treadmill while being monitored by an ECG.
The intensity of exercise is periodically increased until certain changes in heart function are detected on the ECG monitor, at which point the subject is directed to stop.
Typical duration of the test ranges ten to twenty minutes. Adults who are beginning a new exercise regimen are often advised to perform this test only in the presence of medical staff due to risks associated with high heart rates.
It is well-established that there is a "poor relationship between maximal heart rate and age" and large standard deviations relative to predicted heart rates.
Based on measurements of healthy men and women aged between 19 and 89, and including the potential modifying effect of gender, body composition, and physical activity, Nes et al found.
This relationship was found to hold substantially regardless of gender, physical activity status, maximal oxygen uptake, smoking, or body mass index.
However, a standard error of the estimate of The results showed HRmax to be independent of gender and independent of wide variations in habitual physical activity levels.
Also a third nonlinear equation was produced: Although attributed to various sources, it is widely thought to have been devised in by Dr.
William Haskell and Dr. While it is the most common and easy to remember and calculate , this particular formula is not considered by reputable health and fitness professionals to be a good predictor of HR max.
Research conducted at Northwestern University by Martha Gulati, et al. A study from Lund, Sweden gives reference values obtained during bicycle ergometry for men:.
Maximum heart rates vary significantly between individuals. Figures are generally considered averages, and depend greatly on individual physiology and fitness.
Some methods of measurement of exercise intensity measure percentage of heart rate reserve. Additionally, as a person increases their cardiovascular fitness, their HR rest will drop, and the heart rate reserve will increase.
Percentage of HR reserve is equivalent to percentage of VO 2 reserve. This is often used to gauge exercise intensity first used in by Karvonen.
In each of these methods, there is an element called "intensity" which is expressed as a percentage. However, it is crucial to derive an accurate HR max to ensure these calculations are meaningful.
An alternative to the Karvonen method is the Zoladz method , which derives exercise zones by subtracting values from HR max:.
Heart rate recovery HR recovery is the reduction in heart rate at peak exercise and the rate as measured after a cool-down period of fixed duration.
Heart rates that do not drop by more than 12 bpm one minute after stopping exercise are associated with an increased risk of death.
The heartbeat of a human embryo begins at approximately 21 days after conception, or five weeks after the last normal menstrual period LMP , which is the date normally used to date pregnancy in the medical community.
The electrical depolarizations that trigger cardiac myocytes to contract arise spontaneously within the myocyte itself.
The heartbeat is initiated in the pacemaker regions and spreads to the rest of the heart through a conduction pathway. Pacemaker cells develop in the primitive atrium and the sinus venosus to form the sinoatrial node and the atrioventricular node respectively.
Conductive cells develop the bundle of His and carry the depolarization into the lower heart. The embryonic heart rate then accelerates linearly for the first month of beating, peaking at — bpm during the early 7th week, early 9th week after the LMP.
This acceleration is approximately 3. After peaking at about 9. There is no difference in male and female heart rates before birth.
Heart rate is measured by finding the pulse of the heart. A good area is on the neck, under the corner of the jaw. The radial artery is the easiest to use to check the heart rate.
However, in emergency situations the most reliable arteries to measure heart rate are carotid arteries. This is important mainly in patients with atrial fibrillation , in whom heart beats are irregular and stroke volume is largely different from one beat to another.
It can be detected, however, by doppler. A more precise method of determining heart rate involves the use of an electrocardiograph , or ECG also abbreviated EKG.
An ECG generates a pattern based on electrical activity of the heart, which closely follows heart function. Continuous ECG monitoring is routinely done in many clinical settings, especially in critical care medicine.
Heart rate monitors allow measurements to be taken continuously and can be used during exercise when manual measurement would be difficult or impossible such as when the hands are being used.
Various commercial heart rate monitors are also available. Some monitors, used during sport, consist of a chest strap with electrodes.
The signal is transmitted to a wrist receiver for display. Alternative methods of measurement include pulse oximetry and seismocardiography.
Tachycardia is a resting heart rate more than beats per minute. This number can vary as smaller people and children have faster heart rates than average adults.
Bradycardia was defined as a heart rate less than 60 beats per minute when textbooks asserted that the normal range for heart rates was 60— bpm.
The normal range has since been revised in textbooks to 50—90 bpm for a human at total rest. Setting a lower threshold for bradycardia prevents misclassification of fit individuals as having a pathologic heart rate.
The normal heart rate number can vary as children and adolescents tend to have faster heart rates than average adults. Bradycardia may be associated with medical conditions such as hypothyroidism.
Trained athletes tend to have slow resting heart rates, and resting bradycardia in athletes should not be considered abnormal if the individual has no symptoms associated with it.
For example, Miguel Indurain , a Spanish cyclist and five time Tour de France winner, had a resting heart rate of 28 beats per minute,  one of the lowest ever recorded in a healthy human.
Daniel Green achieved the world record for the slowest heartbeat in a healthy human with a heart rate of just 26 bpm in Arrhythmias are abnormalities of the heart rate and rhythm sometimes felt as palpitations.
They can be divided into two broad categories: Some cause few or minimal symptoms. Others produce more serious symptoms of lightheadedness, dizziness and fainting.
A number of investigations indicate that faster resting heart rate has emerged as a new risk factor for mortality in homeothermic mammals, particularly cardiovascular mortality in human beings.
Faster heart rate may accompany increased production of inflammation molecules and increased production of reactive oxygen species in cardiovascular system, in addition to increased mechanical stress to the heart.
There is a correlation between increased resting rate and cardiovascular risk. This is not seen to be "using an allotment of heart beats" but rather an increased risk to the system from the increased rate.
An Australian-led international study of patients with cardiovascular disease has shown that heart beat rate is a key indicator for the risk of heart attack.
The study, published in The Lancet September studied 11, people, across 33 countries, who were being treated for heart problems. Those patients whose heart rate was above 70 beats per minute had significantly higher incidence of heart attacks, hospital admissions and the need for surgery.
Higher heart rate is thought to be correlated with an increase in heart attack and about a 46 percent increase in hospitalizations for non-fatal or fatal heart attack.
Other studies have shown that a high resting heart rate is associated with an increase in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the general population and in patients with chronic disease.
Given these data, heart rate should be considered in the assessment of cardiovascular risk, even in apparently healthy individuals. It is inexpensive and quick to measure and is easily understandable.
Standard textbooks of physiology and medicine mention that heart rate HR is readily calculated from the ECG as follows:.
Lifestyle and pharmacological regimens may be beneficial to those with high resting heart rates. In studies of resting heart rate and risk of death and cardiac complications on patients with type 2 diabetes, legumes were found to lower resting heart rate.
A very slow heart rate bradycardia may be associated with heart block. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Normal heart sounds as heard with a stethoscope. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Bradycardia and Athletic heart syndrome.
This section needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources.
VO 2 max is bereikt als de hoeveelheid opgenomen zuurstof niet stijgt, ondanks een toenemende inspanning. Een dergelijke meting vindt meestal plaats op een loopband of een fietsergometer.
Aangezien het bepalen van de VO 2 max gevaarlijk kan zijn, het lichaam wordt tot het uiterste ingespannen, dient een meting te worden uitgevoerd onder medisch toezicht, bijvoorbeeld in een Sport Medisch Adviescentrum.
Dit Principe van Fick luidt als volgt:. Q staat voor het hartminuutvolume de hoeveelheid bloed die het hart per minuut rondpompt ; CaO 2 is het arterieel zuurstofgehalte de hoeveelheid zuurstof in het bloed afkomstig van het hart , CvO 2 is het veneus zuurstofgehalte de hoeveelheid zuurstof in het bloed richting het hart.
Een op deze wijze vastgestelde VO 2 max is zeer nauwkeurig, maar wordt om praktische redenen er moet bloed worden afgenomen bij hoge lichamelijke inspanning uitsluitend bij wetenschappelijk onderzoek gebruikt.
Een andere methode, waarmee men overigens hooguit tot een schatting van de VO 2 max kan komen, is de coopertest.
Daarbij moet in 12 minuten een zo groot mogelijke afstand hardlopend worden afgelegd. Om snel een schatting te geven van het VO 2 max te maken, zijn verschillende formules gebaseerd op maximale hartslag in gebruik.
Deze formules geven een schatting en zijn dus weinig betrouwbaar. Een voorbeeld van een formule is: